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TARA

Page history last edited by Brittany Woods 10 years, 9 months ago

Tara

The Mother of Perfected Wisdom

 

 

 

"There is a true feminist movement in Buddhism that relates to the goddess Tārā. Following her cultivation of bodhicitta, the bodhisattva's motivation, she looked upon the situation of those striving towards full awakening and she felt that there were too few people who attained Buddhahood as women. So she vowed, 'I have developed bodhicitta as a woman. For all my lifetimes along the path I vow to be born as a woman, and in my final lifetime when I attain Buddhahood, then, too, I will be a woman.'"

-Dalai Lama, 1989

 

 

The Bodhisattva Tara is a symbol for feminism and the inclusion of women in the Mahayana Buddhist traditionTara's 21 forms metaphorically illustrate women's multi-faceted nature, and her myriad forms provide models women might easily relate to in any situation.  She emanates an aura of power, and instills a hope that women may achieve greatness amongst their male counterparts.

 


History

 

Background

 

     Tara is the Goddess who represents Perfected Wisdom and teaches the inner and outer understandings of compassion and emptiness.  There are many different representations of Tara, up to twenty-one in all four sects of Tibetan Buddhism, but the two more famous Taras worshipped are the Green and White Taras.   Green Tara represents enlightened activity, and White Tara represents compassion, long life, and serenity (See below for further details on each of the representations of Tara). 

     To explain how Tara came to be, we must look at Avalokitesvara's story.  Avalokitesvara was looking down at the world of samsara from his Pureland, and realized all the suffering the lower three realms were enduring.  He wept at the sight,  and from two tears appeared White Tara and Green Tara, each acting as his "guardian angels;" reassuring him that he mustn’t stop striving to help all sentient beings. 

Interestingly enough, the Tara figure originated in Hinduism; later, once Mayahana became an established practice, she was transferred into Buddhist teachings.  She was the first Bodhisattva to incorporate feminine principles thus known as the "Mother of Perfected Wisdom," and then later noticed as the "Mother of Compassion of Perfected Wisdom."  Her face is always depicted with a subtle smile and welcoming eyes, producing the infinite wisdom that allows laity to connect with her on a personal level; and making her one of the most worshipped deities amongst the Buddhist community, especially women.  

     Tara is a beacon to lay worship and devotion; laity can speak to her directly, rather than through a mediating monk or nun. But Tara tends to find deeper footing among women; she is part of Tantric Meditation, which is mostly practiced by women; and since women in traditional Tibetan households tend to maintain the domestic sphere, they do most of their venerations in the comfort of their own home; so being able to pray directly to Tara pulls strong devotion from lay women. 

     Tara looks after all sentient beings and protects them, just as a mother would her children.  She is the female figure of Avalokitesvara, and can be modernly defined as the embodiment of feminism; because she is a powerful goddess (or Bodhisattava) who is not only active in protecting all sentient beings, but also has a compassionate side that is easily identifiable by all.       

 

Origin Myths

 

The Princess

Tara was a princess in another world system named Yeshe Dawa, which means "Moon of Primordial Awareness".  She was devoted to the Buddha of her world system and learns how to be a bodhisattva from him.  The other monks of that system recommend she request to be born a man in her next life so she can achieve more in the way of enlightenment.  She replies that only "weak minded worldlings" see gender as barrier to Enlightenment and she vows to always be reborn in the form of a woman until the end of samsara.

 

 

From the Tears of Avalokitesvara

Tara is a female form of Avalokitesvara, the bhodhisattva of compassion.  There are many legends of how Tara came into existence. One legend, similar to the legend of Kuan Yin says that as Avalokitesvara wept for those sentient beings trapped in the lower realms Tara was born from a lotus flower that grew from his tears.  Another version of this story tells of how the Green and White forms of Tara were born from 2 tears of Avalokitesvara.  Yet another version of the legend says that Tara was created from a blue beam of light emanating from Avalokitesvara’s eye.

 

 

The Two Wives

Tara is said to be incarnated in all pious women in Tibet.  Legend says that 2 of the wives of the great King Srong-btsan Sgam-po of Tibet embodied the White and Green Taras. 

 

 

Mother and Protector  

 

Tara is also seen as a mother figure.  Her compassion for all sentient beings is compared to love that of a mother for her child.  She protects those in earthly travel and is thought to be the goddess of navigation.  This is also symbolic for she aids sentient beings as they travel the path to Enlightenment.  She is often called upon in prayer by refugees.

 

'Tara' means 'Rescuer'. Aptly named, she rescues us from the eight inner fears, manifest in the eight outer fears.

 8 outer fears: 

        • Lions = Pride
        • Wild elephants = Delusions
        • Forest fires = Hatred
        • Snakes = Envy
        • Robbers = Fanatical/wrong view
        • Prisons = Avarice
        • Floods = Lust
        • Demons = Doubt[3]

 

  Outer fears manifest in realm of corporeal reality- affects the physical body  

  Inner fears manifest in ultimate reality- occurs in the mind

 

 


 

Ritual

 

 Tara's Vow

 

"There are many who wish to gain enlightenment

in a man's form,

And there are few who wish to work

for the welfare of living beings

in a female form.  

 Therefore may I, in a female body,

work for the welfare of all beings,

until such time as all humanity has found its fullness."[1]

 

 

Mantra

 

Om tare tuttare ture svaha/soha

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

  YouTube plugin error

 

 

Om

ah- essence of awakened body

o- essence of awakened speech

m- essence of awakened mind

Tare

quickly with boldness 

Tuttare

clearing away all fear, distress and suffering of all beings 

Ture

complete victory of truth over all negativity

Soha/svaha   

all accomplishments [2]

 

  

 

 

 

 

 


 

Manifestations

 

 

 

       

 

White Tara: Mother of all Buddhas  

By Amber Carlson

 

  

 

 

 

Introduction

 

     White Tara is one of the two best-known emanations of Tara (the other being Green Tara).  White Tara embodies compassion and motherliness.  She is a savior bodhisattva and can be called on for help, especially when followers need assistance in overcoming obstacles in their lives.  White Tara is associated with health, strength, longevity and beauty, and her love is so powerful that it is thought to cure diseases.

 

Origin of White Tara

 

     According to legend, White Tara originated from the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara.  When Avalokiteshvara witnessed all of the suffering in the world, he was so moved that he began to cry.  It is said that White Tara emerged from the tears flowing from his left eye.  Her essence is the compassion within Avalokiteshvara's tears. 

 

Artistic portrayal

 

     White Tara wears silken garments along with traditional bodhisattva ornaments and jewels.  White Tara's skin is “white as an autumn moon; clear as a stainless crystal gem, radiating light” (1).  Its whiteness is also compared to the “radiance of the eternal snows” (1).  White is symbolic of selflessness and purity; additionally, it shows that she represents dharma, or unbiased truth.  She sits upright on a circle of the moon with her legs folded in diamond posture, demonstrating her graceful, calm nature. With her right hand, she is making the gift-bestowing gesture as a symbol of her compassion.  With her left hand, she holds a lotus flower (utpala) between her thumb and fourth finger (the protection mudra).  The utpala in her hand has three blooms: one symbolizing the Buddha of the previous eon (Kashyapa); the second representing the present Buddha (Shakyamuni); and the third representing the future Buddha (Maitreya),  White Tara is said to be the essence of the past, present and future Buddhas.  Hence, she is known as the Mother of all Buddhas.

 

     White Tara has a total of seven eyes on her body.  These represent the Seven Eyes of Knowledge and show her vigilance--Tara sees all human suffering.  The locations of the different eyes tell what kind of suffering she sees.  On her face, there are three eyes: two are in the same locations as human eyes, representing apparent (external) suffering, and one sits just above her nose in the spiritual "third eye" position.  Many Southeast Asians wear bindis--small dots or markings indicating the location of the third eye on the forehead.  In artistic depictions of Tara, this eye represents psychological and spiritual suffering.  Tara also has an eye in the palm of each hand (representing suffering in activity) as well as one on the sole of each foot (representing suffering in progress). 

 

     It is also said that White Tara radiates white light.  White light results from combining all of the other colors of light together.  When white light is shone through the "prism" of life, a rainbow appears.  The multitude of different colors are representative of life's diversity.  Tara's white light unifies all of the colors, making all living things one. 

 

     White Tara is also associated with Rainbow Body practice, or Dzogchen, a mystical tradition practiced by Tantric Buddhists (though is not exclusive to Buddhism).  Dzogchen originated in the Bön religion, an indigenous religion of the Himalayan peoples.  The Tantric sage Padma Sambhava eventually brought Buddhism to Tibet, and the natives readily adopted Buddhism because Buddhist beliefs fit well with the Bön belief system.  According to legend, when Padma Sambhava died, his body dissolved back into the natural elements and left no relics.  This miraculous event gave rise to the Nyingma tradition, which led to the development of Tibetan Buddhism. 

 

     Dzogchen is an integral feature of the Nyingma tradition.  The final practice of Dzogchen is to dissolve one’s body back into the elements at the time of death, as Padma Sambhava did.  When this occurs, it is said that the physical body literally radiates light, and the practitioner disappears into that light, transcending the physical form to become a wisdom body.  This is known as the Rainbow Body attainment, and Tantric Buddhists see it as a sign of extreme sanctity.  The Rainbow Body attainment is enlightenment, in a sense—it is “awareness without obscurations; it is omniscience; it is pure space.  It is the ultimate fruit of spiritual cultivation.” (16)

 

How is White Tara different from Green Tara?

 

     There are a few ways in which White Tara differs from Green Tara.  First, compared with Green Tara, who is depicted as being youthful and girlish, White Tara is womanly and mature.  She is more full-bodied than Green Tara; her full breasts, in particular, give the impression of motherliness.  Secondly, White Tara represents day, while Green Tara represents night.  Finally, the two Taras aid followers in different ways.  Green Tara responds to immediate concerns (e.g. wealth and other worldly concerns), while White Tara responds to longer term problems (e.g. physical and mental health).

 

White Tara's Mantra

 

OM TARE TUTTARE TURE, MAMA AYUR JANA PUNTIN KURU SOHA.

 

Roughly translated, the mantra is an appeal to Tara for longevity, merit and wisdom.

 

White Tara Mantra

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Green Tara  

 

     

Introduction

 

     Green Tara is the Bodhisattva's most dynamic manifestation. Her color symbolizes youthful vitality and activity. The Buddhist Lord of karma, Amoghasiddhi, is also associated with the green color; suggesting familial affiliation, and moreover affirming the perception that Green Tara is a goddess of action.[4]

 

Origin of Green Tara

 

     Preceding Buddhism, Tara was worshipped as a manifestation of the goddess Parvati of the Hindu religion; though she probably had not been introduced to Buddhism until the 6th century, CE.

      Though she is the more intense manifestation, her role of savior-goddess of compassion has not deviated. As a consort of Avalokiteshvara, some consider Green Tara to be the original Tara. And like Avalokiteshvara, Green Tara is believed to be an emanation of the "self-born" Buddha Amitabha, and an image of Amitabha is occasionally illustrated in Tara's headdress. [17]

 

Artistic Portrayal 

 

     Though her legends or origination vary, her depictions tend to remain consistent. She is often depicted in a posture of ‘royal ease’ characteristic of Bodhisattva’s. With her right leg extended, she is ready to leap into action. The left leg folds in the contemplative position on the lotus pedestal; the two together thus symbolizing the integration of wisdom and art.

     Her left hand, held in the refuge mudra, holds the stem of a blue lotus that floats over her left shoulder as a symbol of purity and power; and furthermore recalling legends of her origination, and fully-bloomed realization. Her right hand is splayed in the generosity mudra, signifying bestowal of both mundane and divine blessings.[18]

 

 

 

21 Taras

 

     From the tantra known as the “Twenty-One Praises of Tara,” arises a system of practice with 21 emanations of Tara-- 1 for each verse. Each form of Tara exhibits a unique color, and is charged to realize a precise action.

     There are 3 eminent and distinct roots for the set of 21 Taras: Pandita Suryagupta, Lord Atisha and the lineage from the Nyingma Lama - Longchenpa. But these 3 lineages do not share the same iconographic forms. In the Atisha assembly, all the Taras appear in the same basic posture, and only differ with the color of the body. These 3 lineages notwithstanding, there are other, though lesser-known series’ of the 21 Taras.[9]

 

     4 colors basically serve as ciphers for their 4 activities:  pacifying, enriching, subjugating, and eliminating. Mixed colors such as orange signify a blend of qualities, tempered by strong associations.  For example, #3 is bluish-yellow, the color of an old Tibetan turquoise; and #20, who wears the traditional robe of an Indian mendicant.[10]

 

  Epithets and color manifestations:

 

1. The Swift Heroine- red 

2. Saraswati-white; Tara "The Great Pacifier" (of kleshas: negative obscurations) 

3. The Giver of Supreme Virtue- yellow (blue-tinged); "Tara who Increases" 

4. The All-Victorious- white; "Tara of the Life Force" 

5. The Giver of Intelligence- reddish yellow (orange); "Tara Resonating with HUM

6. The Terrifier- black (reddish); "Tara, Victorious Over the Three Worlds" 

7. The Invincible- black; "Tara Who Crushes the Forces of Others" 

8. The Conqueror of Others- reddish black; "Tara, Pulverizer of the Maras" 

9. The Savior of the Scented Forest- white; "Tara, Embodiment of the Three Jewels" 

10. The Conqueror of the Three Worldly Realms- red; "The Great Subduer" 

11. The Giver of Wealth- yellow-orange; "Tara Eliminator of Poverty" 

12. The Auspicious- orange; "Tara Bestower of Auspicious Conditions" 

13. The Destroyer of Opposing Forces- red; "Tara Blazing in Flames" 

14. The Wrathful- reddish-black; "Tara of Wrathful Gaze" 

15. The Very Peaceful- white

16. The Blazing Light- red;  "Tara Who Saves by Means of HUM" 

17. The Subduer of Countless Harmful Forces- orange; "Tara Trembler of the Three Worlds" 

18. The Peahen- white; "Tara Who Eliminates Poisons" 

19. The Invincible Queen- white; "Tara, Eliminator of Conflicts and Bad Dreams" 

20. The Mountain-dwelling Mendicant- saffron yellow; "Tara Eliminator of Diseases" 

21. Rays of Light- white;  "Tara Accomplisher of All Enlightened Activities"[11]

 

 

 

21 Praises of Tara

 

OM I prostrate to the noble transcendent liberator.

 

1
Homage to Tara swift and fearless
With eyes like a flash of lightning
Lotus-born in an ocean of tears
Of Chenresig, three worlds' protector.

2
Homage to you whose face is like
One hundred autumn moons gathered
And blazes with the dazzling light
Of a thousand constellations.

3
Homage to you born from a gold-blue lotus
Hands adorned with lotus flowers
Essence of giving, effort and ethics,
Patience, concentration and wisdom.

4
Homage to you who crown all Buddhas
Whose action subdues without limit
Attained to every perfection
On you the bodhisattvas rely.

5
Homage to you whose TUTTARE and HUM
Fill the realms of desire, form and space.
You crush seven worlds beneath your feet
And have power to call all forces.

6
Homage to you adored by Indra,
Agni, Brahma, Vayu and Ishvara.
Praised in song by hosts of spirits,
Zombies, scent-eaters and yakshas.

7
Homage to you whose TREY and PEY
Destroy external wheels of magic.
Right leg drawn in and left extended,
You blaze within a raging fire.

8
Homage to you whose TURE destroys
The great fears, the mighty demons.
With a wrathful frown on your lotus face,
You slay all foes without exception.

9
Homage to you beautifully adorned
By the Three Jewels' gesture at your heart.
Your wheel shines in all directions
With a whirling mass of light.

10
Homage to you, radiant and joyful
Whose crown emits a garland of light.
You, by the laughter of TUTTARA
Conquer demons and lords of the world.

11
Homage to you with power to invoke
The assembly of local protectors.
With your fierce frown and vibrating HUM,
You bring freedom from all poverty.

12
Homage to you with crescent moon crown
All your adornments dazzling bright.
From your hair-knot, Amitabha
Shines eternal with great beams of light.

13
Homage to you who dwells in a blazing wreath
Like the fire at the end of this age.
Your right leg outstretched and left drawn in,
Joy surrounds you who defeats hosts of foes.

14
Homage to you whose foot stamps the earth
And whose palm strikes the ground by your side.
With a wrathful glance and the letter HUM,
You subdue all in the seven stages.

15
Homage to the blissful, virtuous, peaceful one
Object of practice, nirvana's peace
Perfectly endowed with SOHA and OM
Overcoming all the great evils.

16
Homage to you with joyous retinue
You subdue fully all enemies' forms
The ten-letter mantra adorns your heart
And your knowledge-HUM brings liberation.

17
Homage to TURE with stamping feet
Whose essence is the seed-letter HUM
You cause Merus, Mandara and Vindaya
And all three worlds to tremble and shake.

18
Homage to you who holds in your hand
A moon like a celestial lake
Saying TARA twice and the letter PEY
You dispel all poisons without exception.

19
Homage to you on whom the kings of gods,
The gods themselves and all spirits rely.
Your armor radiates joy to all
You soothe conflicts and nightmares as well.

20
Homage to you whose eyes, the sun and moon,
Radiate with pure brilliant light
Uttering HARA twice and TUTTARA
Dispels extremely fearful plagues.

21
Homage to you, adorned with three natures
Perfectly endowed with peaceful strength
You destroy demons, zombies and yakshas
O TURE, most exalted and sublime!


Thus the root mantra is praised
And twenty-one homages offered[7]

 


 

Iconography

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White Tara

Statue sits in Karma Kagyu school located in a dharma centre: A Karma Kagyu school is a non-monastic school; a dharma centre is a lay community. 

Having this statue in a purely lay community reiterates the devotion the laity have for Tara. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Goddess, Tara

12th c. Nepal.

Copper alloy with gilt, pigment, and semi-precious stones.

Los Angeles County Museum of Art

 

The S-curve of her body demonstrates an elegance characteristic of Nepali art. 

Tara holds a lotus, recalling legends of her birth from the flower sprouted from the tears of Avalokitesvara. 

Her right, open palm faces toward the viewer in a mudra bestowing peace, longevity and good fortune.

 

 

 

Click on the image to zoom in

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eastern Tibet, c. 1800 - 1899 . Ground Mineral Pigment on Cotton. 

Collection of Rubin Museum of Art

Tara here assumes the generosity mudra as she protects sentient beings from the “8 fears.”

 

 


 

Works Cited  

 

[1] Khandro.Net. Tara. 2010. 6 April 2010 <http://www.khandro.net/deities_Tara1.htm>.

 

[2]Tara.  Sacred Wind.  2007-2009.  <http://www.sacredwind.com/tara.php>

 

[3] Sukhasiddhi Foundation. "Meaning of Tara mantra." 2010. Sukhasiddhi Foundation. 6 April 2010 < http://www.sukhasiddhi.org/docs/>.

 

[4] Kumar, Nitin.  “Green Tara and White Tara: Feminist Ideals in Buddhist Art.  Internet. http://www.exoticindiaart.com/article/tara/2/.

 

[5] Sukhasiddhi Foundation. " Understanding Vajrayana Practice ." 2009. Sukhasiddhi Foundation. 6 April 2010 < http://www.sukhasiddhi.org/docs/>. 

[6] Ibid.

 

[7]  Osel Shen Phen Ling. 2 April 2010. 7 April 2010 <http://www.fpmt-osel.org/meditate/21taras.htm>.

 

[8] Himalayan Art. “Tara”. 2004. Shelley and Donald Rubin Foundation. 3 April 2010. <http://www.himalayanart.org/image.cfm/237.html>.

[9]Ibid.

 

[10] Khandro.Net. Tara's Epithets. 2010. 6 April 2010 <http://www.khandro.net/Tara_21names.htm>.

[11] Ibid.

 

[12] Kumar, Nitin.  “Green Tara and White Tara: Feminist Ideals in Buddhist Art.  Internet. http://www.exoticindiaart.com/article/tara/2/.

 

[13] No Author Cited.  “White Tara – Goddess of Compassion.”  Internet.  http://www.whitetara.com/whitetara.html.

 

[14] No Author Cited.  “Tara: Buddhist Goddess in Green and White.”  Internet.  http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/deities/tara.htm.

 

[15] No Author Cited.  “The White Tara.”  Internet.  http://vortexcd.tripod.com/wtara.htm.

 

[16] Barrett, James Andrew.  “Rainbow Body – Body of Light.”  Internet.  http://web.me.com/jamesbarrett999/Site/Rainbow_Body.html.

 

[17] No Author Cited.  “Tara: Buddhist Goddess in Green and White.”  Internet.  http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/deities/tara.htm.

 

[18]Kumar, Nitin.  “Green Tara and White Tara: Feminist Ideals in Buddhist Art.  Internet. http://www.exoticindiaart.com/article/tara/2/.

 

 

 

 

 

Marnie Brinckerhoff

Kristen Cretecos

Amber Carlson

Brittany Woods

dalai
[1]
[2]  
Om

ah- essence of awakened body

o- essence of awakened speech

m- essence of awakened mind

Tare
quickly with boldness
Tuttare clearing away all fear, distress and suffering of all beings
Ture  

complete victory of truth over all negativity

 Soha/svaha  all accomplishments [2]

Om. 

Jetsun-ma Pama Do'ma la chag tsal lo. 

Om!                                                                   

To Great, Noble Tara, I bow down.

 

Cha tsal Dölma nyur ma pa mo, 

Chen ni kay chik lo dang dra ma 

Jik ten sum gön chu che zhel ji, 

Gesar je wa lay ni jung ma. 1

 

I praise the Fearless, the Swift One, Protector, whose glance is like lightning. 

On the face of Chenrezi, she is born from a tear as a bud from a lotus.

 

red

Cha tsal tön kay dawa kün tu,      

Kang wa ja ni tsek pay shel ma, 

Kar ma tong trak tsok pa nam chi,

Rap tu che way ö rap bar ma. 2

 

She of the face like the full moons of autumn

 

that blazes the light of the stars in their thousands.

white

Cha tsal ser ngo chu nay che chi, 

Pay may cha ni nam par jen ma  

Jin pa tsön dru ka tup shi wa 

Zö pa sam ten chö yul nyi ma. 3 

 

I praise the Body, all turquoise and golden; 

Whose hand is adorned with the lotus, most perfect,

Whose realm is most generous, diligent, simple.

Peaceful and patient, she sits in meditation.

greenish

Cha tsal deb shin shek pay tsu tor, 

Ta yay nam par jal war chö ma. 

Ma lu pa rol chin pa top ray, 

Jal way say chi shin tu ten ma. 4 

 

Seated above the heads of all Buddhas, 

resplendent in joyous and infinite triumph,

Deeply honoured by all Bodhisattvas, 

She is perfect in all of the virtues transcendent.

white

Cha tsal Tutara Hung yi ge, 

Dö tang cho dang nam ka kang ma. 

Jik ten dun bo shap chi nen te  

Lu pa me par gu par nu ma. 5 

 

With ‘Tutare’ and ‘Hung!’ she imbues this world,

all ten directions and infinite space.

And trampling seven worlds under her feet, 

she is able to summon them all to her place.

orange

Cha tsel ja jin me hla tsang ba, 

Lung hla na tsok wang chuk chö ma,

Jung bo rolang dri sa nam tang, 

Nö jin tso chi dun nay to ma. 6

 

I praise the One to whom great gods 

make toasts.

She is honored by spirits, and 

demons, and ghosts.

reddish-black

Cha tsal tray che ja tang pay chi,  

Pa rol trul kor rap tu jom ma. 

Yay kum yön chang shap chi nen te, 

Me bar truk pa shin tu bar ma. 7 

 

I hail the One, who by ‘Treh’ and by ‘Peh!’

undoes all the plots of conspiring foes; 

Who wrapped in the fire that rages around her, 

with right leg retracted and left one extended, 

Tramples the evil ones under her toes.

black

Cha tsal Ture jik pa chen mo, 

Du chi pa wo nam par jom ma. 

Chu che shel ni tro nyer den dzay, 

Dra wo tam chay ma lu sö ma. 8 

 

I praise the Swift, the One who is Fearsome

who with terrible aspect defeats boldest demons.

Her lotus face angrily frowns down upon them

so all foes are vanquished, not a single remains.

blackish-red

Cha tsal kön chok sum tson cha jay, 

Sor mö tuk kar nam par jen ma, 

Ma lu cho chi kor lo jen pay, 

Rang gi ö chi tso nam tru ma. 9 

 

I sing the praises of Her whose hand forms 

the Triple Gem mudra right at her heart.

In her grasp the Dharma Wheel spins out its light

in all the directions and to every part.

white

Cha tsal rap tu ga war ji pay, 

Urjen ö chi treng wa pel ma, 

Shay pa rap shay Tutara yi,

Du dang jig ten wang du ze ma. 10

 

On her brow she wears radiant joy like a tiara

charming demons and gods 

with her laugh of Tutara.

 

 red

Cha tsal sa shi chong way tso nam, 

Tam chay gu par nü ma nyi ma, 

Tro nyer yo way yi ge Hung gi, 

Pong ba tam chay nam par Dölma. 11

 

She can summon the guards of this world of desire.

With wrathful expression, 

when Hung! does she utter, 

she liberates everyone, no more to suffer.

 dark orange

Cha tsal daway tum bu urjen, 

Jen pa tam chay shin tu bar ma, 

Rel pay trö nay Öpame lay, 

Tak par shin tu ö rap dzay ma. 12

 

She wears the crescent moon as a diadem;

and shining atop her hair clustered in curls

Rests the Buddha Amida, the ornament on them.

orange

Cha tsal kalpa ta may me tar, 

Bar way treng way ü na nay ma, 

Yay chang yon kum kun nay kor gay,  

Dra yi pung ni nam par jom ma.13 

 

She is the Focus of the flaming garland

as the darkening kalpa draws to its close.

With right leg extended and left one drawn in,

for those who rejoice in the Dharma Wheel’s turning, 

She is the one who defeats all their foes.

red 

Cha tsal sa shi ngö la cha gi, 

Ril ji nun ching shap chi dung ma, 

Tro nyer chen dzay yi ge hung gi, 

Rim pa dun bo nam ni gem ma. 14 

 

Full force to her palm, she strikes the universe’ base.

Crying Hung! with a frown as she stamps it down,

She subdues all the denizens of seven levels of that nether place.

 reddish-black

Cha tsal de ma ge ma shi ma, 

Nya ngen day shi chö yul nyi ma,  

Soha Om dang yang dak den pay, 

Dik pa chen po jom pa nyi ma. 15 

 

I salute Lady Peace, Dame Perfection and Bliss;

her realm is Nirvana. 

Between Om! and Swaha! all blemishes vanish 

by means of her mantra.*

                    *Om,Tare Tutare Ture Soha.

white

Cha tsal kun nay kor rap ga way, 

Dra yi lü ni rap tu gem ma, 

Yi ge chu pay nga ni kö pay, 

Rik pa Hung lay Dölma nyi ma. 16 

 

All hail the conquering opponent of those

who rejoice as the Wheel of the Dharma goes round.

She liberates by means of the radiant light   

From the Hung! in the ring of the ten-syllable sound.

red

Cha tsal Ture shap ni dap pay, 

Hung gi nam pay sa bön nyi ma, 

Ri rap Mandara dang bi je, 

Jik ten sum nam yo wa nyi ma. 17

 

I praise The Swift-footed.  Hung! is her seed.

Shaker of Meru, Mandara, Kailash,

Stamping and trampling three worlds with her feet.

orange

Cha tsal hla yi tso yi nam pay, 

Ri dak ta chen cha na na ma, 

Tara nyi jö pay chi yi ge, 

Tu nam ma lü par ni shel ma. 18

 

 

She bears the hare-marked moon, lake of the devas.

And by twice saying ‘Tara

And then saying, ‘P'hey’, 

She removes all contaminants, poisons or kleshas.

white

Cha tsal hla yi tso nam jal pa, 

Hla tang mi am chi yi ten ma, 

Kün nay ko cha ga way ji chi, 

Tsö tang mi lam ngen pa sel ma. 19

 

 

She whom gods, titans and spirits attend,

Can dispel any terrors that come in dark hours,

A proof against Chaos, her beauty has powers.

white

Cha tsal nyi ma dawa jay pay, 

Chen nyi po la ö rap sel ma, 

Hara nyi jö Tutarayi, 

Shin tu drak pö rim nay sel ma. 20 

 

Shining, her eyes like the sun and full moon, 

By twice saying ‘Hara’ and then, ‘Tutarahyi’,

She can put paid the deadly, the wide-raging plague.

orange

Cha tsal te nyi sum nam kö pay, 

Shi way tu dang yang dak den ma, 

Dön dang rolang nö jin tso nam, 

Jom pa Ture rap chok nyi ma, 21

 

Praise be to The Peacemaker. 

By her triple mantra*

All demons succumb.

All hail the Swift-one, in her great mandala.

                                       *Om Ah Hung!

white

Tsa way nga chi tö pa di tang.   

Cha tsal wa la ni nyi shu tsa chik. 

 

This great dharani ~ this is Her song: 

The Praises to Tara, all twenty-one!

Comments (22)

elise.swanson@colorado.edu said

at 5:56 pm on Apr 9, 2010

I really enjoyed your page, especially the background and White Tara sections. The quotes, vow and mantra in the beginning really caught my attention and I wanted to keep reading. The page as a whole was thorough and informative; however, I think it would be more appealing if the it looked more uniform (it looks like everyone threw together there own section and left it at that). Great job!

deborah.krause@colorado.edu said

at 2:35 pm on Apr 10, 2010

I loved that you started with a quote. It gave life to your page! I loved the Origins section and all the extra images and multimedia used. I think its a little hard to follow section to section because it feels so random, i think labeling larger sections over the smaller topics like RITUALS or MYTHS might make it more clear. Overall wonderful job! score 4.5

Amanda Haynes said

at 12:49 pm on Apr 11, 2010

I think this page is definately one of the best! This page shows a lot of creativity and is also very informative and well-organized. I also liked the quote at the beginning as an introduction to the page. I agree with the comments above that if one thing could be improved, it would be clearly labeling each section by myth, ritual and iconography. Otherwise, I give this page a score of 5 out of 5.

Cory said

at 3:14 pm on Apr 11, 2010

Lots of sources, adds to your credibility. I liked the first youtube video I listened to it as I read your page. I liked the organizational preview, starting from a more general preview then digging into the background, legends, green and white tara, and then the 21praises to tara. Overall good job

stephanie.franchs@... said

at 3:20 pm on Apr 11, 2010

you guys really went in depth about so many things about Tara, it was wonderfully researched and presented very well.

samantha.feld@... said

at 4:06 pm on Apr 11, 2010

I liked the picture that you used at the beginning of the page, it was very beautiful. I also liked that you included a chart of the 21 praises of Tara.

Jenifer Miller said

at 4:11 pm on Apr 11, 2010

Wow, there was a lot of great information on this page. I really like how interactive it was - it wasn't just a bunch of written information throughout. The two videos were great and placed in good spots to keep our interest. The only negative I could say about the page is that it felt very segregated. If there was a way to make it all flow together that would have been easier to read through. Otherwise, really well done. Very thorough.

Noga Vardy said

at 5:22 pm on Apr 11, 2010

I really liked your page. You had a ton of information that was all different about Tara. I really learned a lot about Tara. I enjoyed the description and images of the different colors of Tara, I found it very interesting. I don't really have any ideas that could make the page any better. Great job! 5/5

kelsey wentz said

at 7:18 pm on Apr 11, 2010

I liked this page a lot. The information was so thorough and interesting and there was so much of it! I love that you guys used videos and organized everything so well. Nice work.

Hilary Peterson said

at 7:42 am on Apr 12, 2010

I really liked this page. The different colors where helpful in drawing your eyes to different sections. I found it really interesting that there are both white and green depictions of Tara. It is clear that there is a lot of information about Tara and the diagrams were a really good strategy in conveying the information. Good Job!

emily.haugh@... said

at 9:37 am on Apr 12, 2010

There is a lot of information presented in this page and it is all really useful. The different sections are organized well. The addition of a youtube video is a nice contribution and the description of the images is done very all as well as the legends or origin. A lot of information was present without being too overwhelming.

Brittany Woods said

at 10:32 am on Apr 12, 2010

Comments and crits both appreciated and applied.

Thanks, everyone. =)

sydney said

at 10:46 am on Apr 12, 2010

Wow, this is some seriously thorough and interesting research! I love that there is room for feminist ideas in buddhism, and i think you guys picked up on it really well. Nice job! I also loved the 21 praises.

jeremy said

at 11:04 am on Apr 12, 2010

This site is very informative and clearly displays that you guys did your research. I feel that this is one of the best sites I have read thus far. You show all aspects of Tara and clearly note all the sites you did your research on. I liked how you included things that were not asked to be included as well. All in all great job!

Melissa Hagan said

at 1:31 pm on Apr 12, 2010

Your wiki was extensive and informative. I especially liked the set up of the page. Since there is so much information, there was the possibility of it being overwhelming but you guys did a good job of presenting it so that it wasn't confusing or overworked.

lindsey.herron@... said

at 1:45 pm on Apr 12, 2010

incredibly informative page with an infinite amount of information provided. I liked the structure and organization of the page it was easy to navigate from History and Origins to myths and prayers. Good work including both a video and variety of images, charts and translations.

chelsea.wilkerson@... said

at 5:22 pm on Apr 12, 2010

This page is incredibly in depth and well put together. I like how you opened up the page with a quote from the Dalai Lama. It immediately draws the reader in and then you put it in your words beautifully. The images are well organized and great descriptions! All of your explanations on the terms, mantras, etc are very informative as well.

patricia melero said

at 5:41 pm on Apr 12, 2010

great layout it is easy to follow...but you ceased to include ways of prayer...aside from that the research is thorough..

Noel.Smith@Colorado.EDU said

at 11:49 am on Apr 14, 2010

Nice job, lots of great information and good use of images and video.

cameron.barras@... said

at 12:52 pm on Apr 15, 2010

Wow a lot of a great information and your page is very easy to follow. I loved the videos and I thought the colors used throughout were vibrant and eye catching. I don't even know how to make this page better. 5/5!

logan.loeb@colorado.edu said

at 4:51 pm on Apr 16, 2010

The format of the page is very nice to look at and all of the images are great. Tons of great info on Tara!

hgayley@... said

at 9:22 pm on Apr 17, 2010

A popular page indeed! Like others, I appreciated that you started with a quote from the Dalai Lama. You can certainly justify Tara as "feminist" to the extent that she vowed to appear in female form in her myriad emanations, but don’t forget that these forms are understood to help sentient beings regardless of gender. So it is not entirely clear that her veneration is predominantly female—what is your source on that? Nevertheless, Tara did come to be identified with historical women in Tibet, providing a model for female sanctity--as in the case of Songtsen Gampo's two wives, which you mention.

Your group has broken your presentation into cogent and succinct sections, which are effectively organized. Nice section on mythology and Tara's role protecting from the eight kinds of fear, broken down into outer and inner fears. You might have added an image here (like the last one on your page) or moved this content down to the section on Green Tara. Your treatment of her mantra in graph form and video are also good. As others have mentioned, it was nice to listen to her mantra on the video while reading the rest of the page.

So glad that you created separate sections for Tara's manifestations as White Tara (very well written) and Green Tara (perhaps more could be said here), plus the 21 Taras. Wonderful details for the 21 Taras! It almost makes the image section redundant. Overall, rich in detail and elegant layout! 5 - Prof HG

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